(…and bootstrapping out)
Fundamental dilemma in new product development that requires a developer to either fix technological specifications to determine detailed user requirements or assume user requirements to determine basic specifications for technology to develop. Both decisions limit future options. The solution proposed here is to ‘bootstrap’ out by alternating between obtaining user feedback with increasingly more specific designs and trying to materialize new product technology based on
increasingly more concrete user requirements.
(face-to-face communication of tacit knowledge)
Whenever everyone can use new knowledge for free, nobody is willing to invest in research and
development, such that, consequently, the amount invested in research and development is (too) low.